Patent Foramen Ovale: The Unresolved Questions

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March 5, 2024
Patent Foramen Ovale: The Unresolved Questions
Imma Forzano, Gaetano Santulli
Cardiology; Migraine; Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO); Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome; Stroke; TIA;
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Imma Forzano(a), Gaetano Santulli(a,b)

(a) Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Division of Cardiology, “Federico II” University, International Translational Research and Medical Education (ITME) Consortium, Academic Research Unit, 80131, Naples, Italy;

(b) Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City, 10461, NY.

Correspondence to: Department of Medicine (Division of Cardiology), Wilf Family Cardiovascular Research Institute, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City, 10461, NY.


Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) is a remnant of fetal circulation that could be observed in the 25% of the population worldwide. PFO is associated to numerous clinical conditions as migraines, coronary embolization, transient ischemic attacks, and stroke. The main PFO concerns are related to its correlation to stroke, in particular in young adults. Despite the impact on morbidity that PFO could have, to date there is not clear evidence about its management and treatment. In this narrative review our aim is to summarize the more recent evidence in the literature dealing with PFO, in order to provide an updated overview on this topic.


Conflict of Interest

The Authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


The Santulli’s Lab is currently supported in part by the National Institutes of Health (NIH): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI: R01-HL164772, R01-HL159062, R01-HL146691, T32-HL144456), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK: R01-DK123259, R01-DK033823), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS: UL1-TR002556-06, UM1-TR004400) to G.S., by the Diabetes Action Research and Education Foundation (to G.S.), by the Waxman Research Foundation (to G.S.), and by the Monique Weill-Caulier and Irma T. Hirschl Trusts (to G.S.).


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